【Title】CLIMATE CHARACTERISTICS OF PRECIPITATION AND WIND AS WELL PRESSURE AND CLOUD AMOUNT AT THE ANTARCTIC GREATWALL STATION (1985-2008) AND ZHONGSHAN STATION (1989-2008)
Key words: Antarctic Greatwall station, Antarctic Zhongshan station, surface meteorological observation, climate characteristic
【摘要】摘要: 利用南极长城站和中山站的降水、风、湿度、气压和云量等高质量的地面气象观测资料, 对两站基本气候特征和变化趋势进行了分析。结果显示,长城站年降水量为503mm, 年际变化呈减少趋势,变化速率为-27mm/10a. 长城站和中山站年降水日数均呈下降趋势, 变化速率分别为-2.9d/10a和 -12.1d/10a. 长城站和中山站年平均相对湿度分别为88%和58%.长城站年平均湿度总体上呈不明显下降趋势,中山站没有趋势. 长城站盛行风向为西北风,中山站为偏东风,年平均风速分别为7.3 m/s.和7.1 m/s.两站年平均风速呈减少趋势,变化速率分别为-0.09m/s/10a和-0.23m/s/10a.长城站平均大风日数为137天, 记录的极大风速为37.2 m/s.中山站平均大风日159天, 记录的极大风速为50.3 m/s.长城站和中山站年平均气压分别为990hPa和985hPa,变化速率分别为0.65 hPa/10a和-0.80 hPa/10a. 其变化趋势相反,并与两站风速和大风日数及降水日数的变化倾向基本相同. 长城站和中山站月平均云量分别为8.8和6.2, 其差异显示了两站所处气候带的特点,即长城站地区全年阴天多,云量大和中山站与此相反的气候特点。
【Abstract】The variations and trends of monthly, seasonal and annual mean precipitation and wind as well pressure and cloud amount are presented by surface meteorological observation data from the Greatwall station(GW) and Zhongshan station(ZS) at the Antractic. The annual mean precipitation is 503mm and its interannual variation trend is negative(-27mm/10a) at GW. The variation rates of annual precipitation days at GW and ZS are -2.9d/10a and -12.1d/10a separately. The annual mean of humidity at GW and ZS is 88% and 58% separately. Its interannual variation trend is less different and less significant at the both station. The prevailing wind is northwest direction at GW and eastern direction at ZS. The annual mean of wind speed is 7.3 m/s and 7.1 m/s as well their variation trend is -0.09m/s/10a and -0.23m/s/10a separately for GW and ZS. The annual mean days of strong wind is 137d and recorded maximum wind speed is 37.2 m/s at GW, and 159d and recorded maximum wind speed is 50.3 m/s at ZS. The annual mean of pressure is 88% and 58%, and the variation rate is 0.65 hPa/10a and -0.80hPa/10a separately at GW and ZS. The trends is opposite and similar the pattern with wind and strong wind days and precipitation days at both station. The annual mean of cloud amount is 8.8和6.2 separately at GW and ZS. Its difference shows that both station located in the different climate zone.