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首页 > 中国极地考察知识库 > 成果信息库 > 已审查 西南极乔治王岛长城站地区第三纪火山岩地质、岩石学特征及岩浆的生成演化

西南极乔治王岛长城站地区第三纪火山岩地质、岩石学特征及岩浆的生成演化

【标题】西南极乔治王岛长城站地区第三纪火山岩地质、岩石学特征及岩浆的生成演化

【Title】THE VOLCANIC GEOLOGY, PETROLOGICAL CHARACTERIST-ICS AND THE FORMATION AND EVOLUTION OF THE TERTIARY VOLCANIC ROCKS FROM THE GREAT WALL STATION AREA,KING GEORGE ISLAND, WEST ANTARCTICA

【作者】 郑祥身; 鄂莫岚; 刘小汉; 朱铭; 李家驹

【Author】 Zheng Xiangshen ; Liu Xiaohan ;

【期刊】极地研究

【Journal】

【期刊年份】1991

【卷】3

【期】

【关键词】 西南极; 第三纪火山岩; 地层; 岩石化学; 岩石成因

【Keywords】

【摘要】本文根据四次南极考察所取资料,对西南极乔治王岛菲尔德斯半岛长城站地区第三纪火山岩进行了全面和系统的总结,在火山岩地层的划分、岩相学和矿物学特点、岩浆的生成演化等问题上提出了新的认识。 长城站所在的菲尔德斯半岛出露有一套层状的熔岩、火山碎屑岩和火山碎屑沉积岩,是第三纪岛弧火山作用的产物。长城组包括碧玉山段和玛瑙滩段,由熔岩和正常火山碎屑岩组成,同位素年龄测定证明其形成于古新世至始新世。化石组主要形成于渐新世,其下部化石山段的含有植物化石的火山碎屑沉积岩不整合在玛瑙滩段岩层之上,上部的岩块山段以集块熔岩、角砾熔岩为主体,火山活动可能持续到了中新世早期。整个半岛的火山活动有两个高潮,两次较强烈的火山作用之间是较长的喷发间断,造成半岛岩石被风化剥蚀和火山碎屑沉积岩的出现。次火山岩以岩颈、岩墙、岩脉和规模较小的岩株等形式产出,并受到古火山机构和基底断裂的控制,沿着北西西-南东东的方向有规律地分布。从火山喷发中心和火山岩分布特点分析,该区火山活动有从西向东逐渐迁移的趋势。 熔岩以高铝玄武岩和玄武安山岩为主,安山岩、英安岩数量较少。斜长石和普通辉石是最主要的造岩矿物。高铝玄武岩和玄武安山岩中斜长石斑晶的核部往往为倍长石或钙长石,边缘成份与

【Abstract】This paper deals systematicaly with the volcanic geology, the petrological characteristics and the formation and evolution of the Tertiary volcanic rocks from the Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, West Antarctica, in basis of the great amount of feild investigations and laboratory works by Chinese geologists since 1984, when the Great Wall Station had been build up. The Tertiary volcanic rocks in Fildes Peninsula has been subdevided into 2 litho-stratigraphic formations, the Great Wall Formation and the Fossil Formation, and 4 members by authors considering the geological, isotope chronological and petrological evidences. The Great Wall Formation (GWF) including Jasper Hill Member (JM) and Agate Beach Member (AM) consists of mainly lavas and breccias. At the lower part of the JHM some agglomerates have been found that shows the beginning of the first stage of the volcanic activity. The Fossil Formation (FF) composes of two members also. The Fossil Hill Member (FM) is of tuffaceous sandstone, conglomerate, plant-bearing tuffaceous, siltstone and tuffaceous mudstone. The upper member of FF is Block Hill Member (BM) with agglomerate, breccia and some lavas. The following facts can be considered as the evidences to subdivided the Tertiary volcanic strata in Fildes Peninsula. 1. The unconformity between the strata of AM and that of FM shows that there was a long time break of the volcanic activities in the peninsula. 2. The plant fossils found in tuffaceous siltstone of FM indicate that the eruptive gap between AM and FM persisted a long period. 3. The results of researches on plant fossils, spores and pollens fully prove that FM was formed in early Tertiary, most probablely in Eocene to Oligocene. 4. The isotope chronological data basically suggested that the volcanic rocks on the Fildes peninsula as a whole to be Tertiary. However, the age ranges of GWF are Paleocene to Oligocene and the FF from Eocene to the early Miocene. The eruptive centers in the peninsula were gradually migrating from the western coast to the eastern and the subvolcanic intrusives were regularly distributed along a series of NWW-SEE trending faults. All of these were formed in two stages of volcanic activities from Paleocene to Eocene, perhaps to the early Miocene. The rocks on the peninsula are mainly high-Al basalt and basaitic andesite, as well as andesit and dacite. The plagioclase phenocrystals of high-Al basalt and basaltic andesite lava have a component rather basic. The positive and cyclothemic zonal structure is well developed, and the An content in the central part of plagioclase phenocrystals is almost over 80% and decreases towards the matrix. The porphyritic plagioclascs of andesite and dacite are mainly labrador to andesine. The clinopyroxene in rocks are mainly augite, only a few diopside and Mg-diopside. The compositions of the rare or-thopyroxene in rocks vary from bronzite in basalt and basaltic andcsite to augite brozite in subvolcanic rocks. The olivines are almost iddingsited, which are classified to Mg-lich chrysolite. The rock association, basalte, basaltic andesite, andesite and dacite belonges to a calc-alkaline series and are the typical products of island-arc volcanism. The rocks are chemically richer in CaO(>7 wt%)and A12O3 (usually over 17wt%)contents. The lower K2O content and K2O/Na2O ratio, the higher total FeO comparing with typical calc-alcaline basalt, however, indicate that they have some tholeiitic characteristics. Considering the rock association as whole we can found the MgO, CaO and Al2O3 contents decreasing and K2O content and K2O/Na2O ratio obviously increasing with increasing SiO2 concentraction. The sharp depletion of transitional metal elements, Cr and Ni, in basalts shows a fractional effect. The decreasing plagioclase phenocrysts and Cr, V concentrasion, the unchangible cotent of Ni, and the decreasing of Ba, Sr relative concentration from basaltic to dacitic rocks indicate that the evolution of this rock association has been mainly controled by the fractional of plagioclase and clin

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