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首页 > 中国极地考察知识库 > 成果信息库 > 已审查 从破冰船强制领航到许可证制度——俄罗斯北方海航道法律新变化分析

从破冰船强制领航到许可证制度——俄罗斯北方海航道法律新变化分析

【标题】从破冰船强制领航到许可证制度——俄罗斯北方海航道法律新变化分析

【Title】FROM MANDATORY ICEBREAKER GUIDING TO A PERMIT REGIME: CHANGES TO THE NORTHERN SEA ROUTE IN NEW RUSSIAN LAW

【DOI】10.13679/j.jdyj.2014.2.268

【作者】 张侠; 屠景芳; 钱宗旗; 王泽林; 杨惠根

【Author】 Zhang Xia ; Tu Jingfang ; Qian Zongqi ; Wang Zelin ; Yang Huigen

【期刊】极地研究

【Journal】ADVANCES IN POLAR SCIENCE

【期刊年份】2014

【卷】26

【期】2

【关键词】 北方海航道; 法律; 专属经济区; 破冰船强制领航; 许可证制度

【Keywords】 Northern Sea Route; law; exclusive economic zone; mandatory icebreaker guiding; pilotage; permit regime

【摘要】本文围绕北方海航道定义和破冰船强制领航两个重要的争议问题,详细对比了俄罗斯相关旧法律条文和2013年颁布的新法律条文,综合分析后认为:(1)在法律层面上,俄罗斯对于北方海航道属于国家历史性交通干线的立场没有改变,范围则做了明晰化的界定,新的北方海航道水域范围与俄罗斯北冰洋内水、领海及毗连区和200海里专属经济区水域范围相一致。这意味着消除了有关北方海航道北部边界是否延伸到公海的争议;(2)在规则层面上,从破冰船强制领航制度改变为许可证制度,尤其是给出了具体的、可操作和可预期的独立航行许可和不许可条件,使得外国船只在北方海航道水域的独立航行成为可能。由此得出结论:俄罗斯北方海航道政策出现了较大变化,有进一步向国际开放的政策倾向。

【Abstract】This article focuses on two issues,which is the definition of Northern Sea Route (NSR) and rules of icebreaker guiding. Comparing the Russia legal provisions enacted in 2013 with relevant the old ones, the conclusions based on comprehensive analysis as follow: (1) In the level of legal analysis, Russia’s view on NSR being the historically emerged national transportation routes of Russia has not changed. But new law redefine the scope of NSR, which comprise and consistent with the internal waters, territorial sea, adjacent zone and exclusive economic zone of the Russia Federation. In fact, it removes ambiguity about the boundary of NSR extended to the high sea. (2) In the level of rules analysis, it develop into permit regime from mandatory Icebreaker guiding regime, especially giving the concrete, practical and predictable clause of independent navigation permissible or impermissible conditions. It is possible to foreign ships independent navigation in the N SR according with the new rules. Hence, the Russian policy of NSR appeared massive change, and it has further tendency in opening NSR to the international community.

【基金/项目】 海洋公益性行业科研专项《北极航道适航性评估及航道预报系统研制与示范》(2012-05007-6) ; 国家海洋局国际合作司极地权益研究项目(2008)

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