【Title】Distributions andair–seafluxesofcarbondioxideintheWestern Arctic Ocean
【Abstract】The uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2) by the Arctic Ocean is most likely increasing because of the rapid sea-ice retreat that lifted the barriers preventing gas exchange and light penetration for biological growth. Measurements of atmospheric and surface sea water partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) were conducted during the Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition (CHINARE) cruises from July to September in 2003 and 2008. The latitudinal distribution of pCO2 along the 169°W transect showed a below-atmopsheric pCO2 level in most of the Western Arctic Ocean, with distinct regional differences from Bering Strait northward to the Central Acrctic Ocean. The average air–sea CO2 fluxes on the shelf and slope of the Chukchi Sea were −17.0 and −8.1 mmol m−2 d−1 respectively. In the ice-free zone, the partially ice-covered zone, and the heavily ice-covered zone of the Canada Basin, the fluxes were −4.2, −8.6, −2.5 mmol m−2 d−1 respectively. These rates are lower than other recent estimates. Our new results not only confirmed previous observations that most areas of the Western Arctic Ocean were a CO2 sink in general, but they also revealed that the previously unsampled central basins were a moderate CO2 sink. Analysis of controlling factors in different areas shows that pCO2 in Bering Strait was influenced not only by the Bering inflow waters but also by the high biological production. However, pCO2 fluctuated sharply because of strong water mixing both laterally and vertically. In the marginal ice zone (Chukchi Sea), pCO2 was controlled by ice melt and biological production, both of which would decrease pCO2 onshore of the ice edge. In the nearly ice-free southern Canada Basin, pCO2 increasd latitudinally as a result of atmospheric CO2 uptake due to intensive gas exchange, increased temperature, and decresed biological CO2 uptake due to limited nutrient supply. Finally, pCO2 was moderately lower than the atmospheric value and was relatively stable under the ice sheet of the central Arctic Ocean in very high latitudes. Thus it appears that the Arctic Ocean has a strong potential capacity of absorbing atmospheric CO2 in the future.