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首页 > 中国极地考察知识库 > 成果信息库 > 已审查 南极磷虾渔业科学观察覆盖率管理策略和中国履约

南极磷虾渔业科学观察覆盖率管理策略和中国履约

【标题】南极磷虾渔业科学观察覆盖率管理策略和中国履约

【Title】Management strategy of the observer coverage under the scheme of international scientific observation for Antarctic krill fishery and performance review of observation program in Chinese krill fishery

【作者】 左涛 1,3,4 , 朱建成 1,2,4 , 王新良 1,2,4 , 时永强 1,4

【Author】 Zuo Tao 1,3,4 , Zhu Jiancheng 1,2,4 , Wang Xinliang 1,2,4 , Shi Yongqiang 1,4

【期刊】极地研究

【Journal】

【期刊年份】2017

【卷】Vol. 29

【期】

【关键词】 南极磷虾渔业; 南极海洋生物资源养护委员会; 科学观察制度; 科学观察员覆盖率

【Keywords】 Antarctic krill fishery; CCAMLR; SISO; observer coverage

【摘要】回顾了南极海洋生物资源养护委员会(CCAMLR)管理体系中科学观察覆盖的主要要素, 以及在过去的6年中中国南极磷虾渔业执行科学观察计划的主要成果, 旨在帮助中国磷虾渔船更好地理解和执行相关的政策、规定。国际科学观察制度是CCAMLR管理体系中最为重要的监管组成部分。它是由观察员指派、职责和方法标准、执行效果评估等组成的相对独立管理机制。科学观察员覆盖率是其实施策略的核心评价指标, 它在渔船、网次以及具体观察任务3个层次都有不同的管理规定。南极磷虾渔业必须接受CCAMLR严格监管并实施科学观察。2009—2015年6个渔季, 中国渔船在贯穿所有渔业活动中, 按照CCAMLR要求执行最大可能全面、系统的观察覆盖。已有的23船次中, 19船次执行科学观察, 聘用科学观察员近30人。各渔季的观察天数覆盖率介于81%—100% (平均覆盖率为94%); 渔船覆盖率介于66%—100%, 6个渔季平均覆盖率为82%, 超过CCAMLR的50%的要求。为应对南极磷虾渔业科学观察管理可能的调整, 建议我国建立开放的科学观察培训机制, 积极储备极地渔业国家科学观察员人力资源, 开拓灵活简便的多重委派途径。

【Abstract】This paper outlines the main elements of observer coverage in the Scheme of International Scientific Observation (SISO) of the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), and reviews the performance outcomes of the scientific observation program for the Chinese krill fishery during the past six fishing seasons. The objective is to help members of the Chinese krill fishing fleet better understand and properly implement CCAMLR policies in the convention area. The SISO is one of the most important parts of the monitoring, control, and surveillance system of CCAMLR. It has a series management procedure including observer designation, observation task and function definition, assessment, and operational review. It is mandatory for all fisheries in the CCAMLR convention area to carry an observer. The observer coverage in the SISO is designed and operated at three levels: sampling of vessels, sampling of hauls among vessels, and sampling within hauls. Since commencing a krill fishery program in the 2009/10 fishing season, China has made every effort to ensure both maximum possible coverage and high-quality scientific observation. During the past six fishing seasons of 2009—2015, nearly 30 scientific observers have been deployed onboard 19 of the 23 operating vessels. The annual observed coverage of fishing days varied from 81%–100% (mean: 94%), and the annual vessel coverage ranged from 66%–100% (six year mean: 82%), greater than the minimum 50% requirement. To improve the quality and capability of Chinese observers in response to possible future adjustments of the management strategy regarding observer coverage, we suggest organizing an open and transparent observer training program using national and international experts. In addition, the recruitment of international observers would be a flexible and alternative way to overcome temporary shortages of qualified observer personnel.

【基金/项目】 国家科技支撑计划(2013BAD13B03)、农业部财政专项“南极海洋生物资源开发利用”(2009—2015)和黄海水产研究所基本科研业务项目(20603022013002)资助

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