【Title】ROLE OF SEA ICE IN AIR-SEA EXCHANGE AND ITS RELATION TO SEA FOG
【摘要】本文用了 1 999年夏季中国首次北极科学考察队对海冰、大气和海洋进行的同步和准同步的综合立体观测所获取的资料 ,研究海冰在海 气相互作用中扮演的角色。发现海冰的种类、分布、冰厚等变化对海气热交换都有重要影响。在浮冰区海洋以潜热的形式向大气输送热量 ,潜热通量与浮冰密集度的大小密切有关 ,浮冰越少潜热通量越大 ,潜热通量约为2 1～ 2 3 .6W /m2 ,潜热通量大于感热通量 ;在冰盖和大浮冰块上 ,大气以感热的形式向冰雪面上输送热量。新生的浮冰区或冰间湖是海气热交换最激烈的地方 ,是气候最敏感的区域 ,是北冰洋蒸汽雾生成的重要条件。用层结大气整体动力学输送法 ,计算了一次大范围的蒸汽雾过程的海气热交换 ,海洋向大气输送的热量总功率约为 1 4 8亿千瓦 ,相当于中国发电能力的 69倍 ,相当于大西洋向北冰洋输送热量平均功率的 1 / 2 0。北冰洋的夏季能够形成各种类型的海雾 :辐射雾、蒸汽雾和平流雾 ,其重要原因就是因为海冰的存在 ,使下垫面的性质复杂化 ,海气交换复杂化。
【Abstract】Synchronous or quasi synchronous three dimensional sea ice air comprehensive observation was conducted during China's First Arctic Expedition in summer of 1999. Based on the data from that expedition the role sea ice plays in sea air exchange was studied. The study shows that the kinds, distribution and thickness of sea ice significantly influence the sea air heat exchange. In floating ice area the sea sends heat to the atmosphere in form of latent heat; the latent heat flux has a close relation with the concentration of floating ice, the less floating ice there is, the greater latent heat flux is. The latent heat flux, which is about 21-23.6 W/m 2, is greater than sensible heat flux. On ice field or giant floating ice the atmosphere sends heat to the surface of ice or snow in form of sensible heat. The area of newly created floating ice or polynia is the area where sea air exchange is the most active, and the most sensible for the climate. Also the area is the most important condition for the creation of Arctic vapor fog. The heat exchange of a large scale vapor fog process was calculated by means of stratified atmospheric entire dynamic transportation method; and the result shows that the ocean sends heat at the power of about 14.8 billion kW to the atmosphere, which is 69 times as much as China's total electricity generating capacity or one twentieth of the average power of the heat transportation from the Atlantic Ocean to the Arctic Ocean. There are various kinds of sea fog forming in the Arctic Ocean during the summer, radiation fog, vapor fog and advection fog. One of the causes is the existence of the sea ice, which complicates the cushion and therefore the sea air exchange.