【Title】ECOLOGY OF ZOOPLANKTON IN THE CHUKCHI SEA IN SUMMER
【摘要】根据中国首次北极科学考察的资料 ,分析了楚科奇海浮游动物的物种和生态类群以及群落结构的多样性 ,报道了浮游动物不同群落的地理位置 ,生态属性及其主要种的差异 ,阐述了浮游动物数量的平面和垂直分布特征以及各主要类别的百分组成 ,探讨了本区浮游动物分布特征与环境因子的相关性 ,同时还就本区浮游动物的物种多样性和生物量等指标与相关海区进行比较。结果表明 ,在已记录的 84种浮游动物中 ,4种生态类群同时共存 ,它们以差异悬殊的数量比分别在测区 70°N以南和以北浅水区以及东北部深水区形成 3个生态属性各异的群落结构 ,其分布状况可与测区内不同海流、水团的动态相互佐证。在平面分布上 ,总生物量呈深水区低、浅水区高 ,尤以浅水区南端最高的分布格局 ,在垂直方向上 ,傍晚深水区总生物量高值层出现于 2 0 0 m以浅 ,尤以 5 0 - 0 m层最高 ,2 0 0 m以深逐层下降 ,而物种多样性则由浅到深逐层增加 ,但 80 0 -5 0 0 m层略有减少。与相邻的中、低纬度的海域相比 ,本区浮游动物总生物量均值明显较高 ,但物种多样性却明显贫乏 ,此外 ,物种多样性的垂直分布与热带海域的分布特征完全相反
【Abstract】According to comprehensive oceanographic survey zooplanktonic data were obtained in the Chukchi Sea (66°00′-75°25′N,153°36′-174°59′W) during the period from July to August 1999. The diversity of the species, ecological group and community construction were analyzed. The geographical locations, ecological characteristics and dominant species of the community habitats,the horizontal and vertical distribution of the total biomass and percentage of the major taxa of zooplankton in the zone in summer were described. The interrelation of the distribution characteristics with the environmental factors was discussed. A comparison of species diversity and biomass of this area with that of related sea areas was made. It shows that 4 ecological groups of 84 recorded zooplankton species coexisted in this area with quite different compositions, i.e. they formed 3 communities of different ecological properties in areas in the south and north of 70°N latitude and in deep waters in the northeast. The pattern of distribution is associated with the status of currents and water masses in the areas. It showed that total biomass was lower in the deep waters and higher in the shallow waters, particularly in the south end of the latter, by horizontal distribution. The vertical distribution of species richness showed lower in upper water layers and it increased downwards to the depth of 500m and slightly decreased in layers from 800 to 500m during the dust. The biomass appeared high in water layers in depth less than 200m, particularly in depth of 50-0m, and it decreased in depth beyond 200m. Zooplankton biomass with low value of species diversity was rather high in comparison with the biomass in water of the low and middle latitude. Besides, the vertical distribution of zooplankton diversity was quite different from that in the tropical region.